Cubo Negro

Centro BANAVEN

Johnson & Burgee Arquitectos
Arq. Enrique Gómez, Arq. Carlos Eduardo Gómez y Arq. Jorge Landi
1978

Material Historiográfico

DATOS y BIBLIOGRAFÍA

Centro Banaven “Cubo Negro”

Fecha de Construcción: 1974-1978

Avenida Ernesto Blohm y La Estancia,  Urbanización Chuao,  Municipio Chacao

Anteproyecto:

Johnson & Burgee Architects [1] 1974-1975[2]

Proyecto:

Enrique Gómez, Carlos Eduardo Gómez[3] y Jorge Landi[4]

Estructura:

Ing. Mathias Brewer,[5] de Brewer & Brewer Ingenieros S.A.

Consultores estructurales:

Gillum-Kacyra-Colaco International, subsidiaria de Gillum Colaco, St. Louis, Missouri[6]

 

Propietario original: Promotora 33[7]

Construcción: Tempreca C.A.[8]

Coordinación construcción: Ing. Domingo Lucca[9]

Jefe del proyecto y de la obra: Ing. Leopoldo Anzola[10]

Ingenieros residentes: Ing. Pedro Alfonso e Ing. Carlos Villegas

 

Philip Cortelyou Johnson (Cleveland, Ohio, 08/07/1906-New Canaan, Connecticut, 25/01/2005)

Filósofo, Harvard University, 1927[11]

Director del Departamento de Arquitectura, MoMA, 1932

Corresponsal en Europa de la revista Social Justice, del Padre Couglhin, revista antisemita y fascista norteamericana, 1939[12]

Arquitecto, Harvard University, 1949[13]

1er ganador del Premio Pritzker, 1979

 

John Henry Burgee (Chicago, 28/08/1933)

Arquitecto, University of Notre Dame, 1956

Superintendente de construcción, Holabird, Root & Burgee, Chicago, 1955-1956.

Gerente de Proyecto, Naess & Murphy, 1958-1961

Administrador de diseño y arquitecto proyectista, C. F. Murphy Associates, 1961-1965.

Miembro asociado, C. F. Murphy Associates, 1965-1967,

Socio, C. F. Murphy Associates, 1967.

Asociado, Philip Johnson (Architects), New York, 1967-1968.

Socio, Johnson & Burgee, Architects, 1968-1982.

John Burgee Architects, New York, 1982-1998.

John Burgee Architects, Santa Barbara, California, desde 1998.[14]

 

Enrique José Gómez Marcano (¿?-¿?)

Arquitecto, UCV, 1962[15]

 

Carlos Eduardo Gómez Marcano (¿?-¿?)

Arquitecto, UCV, 1967[16]

Master of Architecture, Stanford University, 1970

 

Giorgio Landi Guida (¿?-¿?)

Arquitecto, UCV, 1973[17]

 

Joseph Mathias Brewer Martínez (Caracas, 13/10/1937-29/09/2016)[18]

Ingeniero Civil. UCAB, 1960[19]

Master degree, civil engineering, Stanford University, California, 1962[20]

Ingeniero proyectista, Tippetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton, Engineers & Architects, New York

Ingeniero, Dirección de Obras Hidráulicas, MOP, Caracas

Funda la compañía Brewer & Brewer Ingenieros, 1962[21]

Registra la compañía como Brewer & Brewer Ingenieros S.A., 1970[22]

 

Jack D. Gillum (Salina, Kansas, 21/11/1928-Aurora, Colorado, 04/07/2012)[23]

Degree in Architectural Engineering, University of Kansas

Funda Jack D. Gillum and Associates, St. Louis, Missouri, ca.1960[24]

Colapso del Hyatt Regency, Kansas City, 1981. La firma de Gillum es la involucrada en el desastre del edificio.[25]

Es relevado de su propia compañía, 1985[26]

ꟷ Ben K. Kacyra, de Houston

ꟷ Joseph P. Colaco, de San Francisco

 

Referencias

[1] Firma activa entre 1968 y 1982, C. Ford Peatruos, editor (2005). Capital Drawings. Architectural designs for Washington, D.C., from the Library of Congress. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press / The Library of Congress p. 225.

[2] “Portal del Centro Banaven”, Op. Cit.

[3] Goldberg, Op. Cit.

[4] “Portal del Centro Banaven”, Op. Cit.

[5] Ibíd.

[6] Engineering News-record, Volumen 203, Números 1-13, McGraw-Hill, 1979, p. 29.

[7] “Centro Banaven” (1977). Punto, Nº 61, Caracas: División de Extensión Cultural, Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Universidad Central de Venezuela.

[8] “Portal del Centro Banaven”, Op. Cit.

[9] Ibíd.

[10] Ibíd.

[11] Javier del Pino (2005). “Philip Johnson, el impulsor de la arquitectura de cristal”, El País. Madrid, 27 de enero.

[12] Deyan Sudjic (2006). The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful Shape the World. Londres: Penguin; Michael Sorkin (1988). “Where was Philip?”, Spy, octubre, pp. 138-140.

[13] Javier del Pino, Op. Cit.

[14] Toda la información sobre Burgee proviene de “John Henry Burgee”, Prabook. Ubicable en: http://prabook.com/web/person-view.html?profileId=672689 [consulta agosto 2017].

[15] Secretaría de la UCV, tomo II, Op. Cit., p. 59.

[16] Ibíd., p. 162.

[17] Ibíd., p. 312.

[18] “Joseph Mathias Brewer Martínez”, Geni. Ubicable en: https://www.geni.com/people/Joseph-Mathias-Brewer-Martínez.

[19] Sociedad Venezolana de Ingenieros Consultores (1973). Ingeniería’73. Caracas: Sociedad Venezolana de Ingenieros Consultores, p. 31.

[20] “Mathias Brewer”, Linkedin. Ubicable en: https://www.linkedin.com/in/mathias-brewer-281281100/ [consulta agosto 2017].

[21] Todos los datos extraídos de Sociedad Venezolana de Ingenieros Consultores, Op. Cit., pp. 31 y 135.

[22] Ibíd., p. 135.

[23] “Jack Gillum Obituary” (2012). Horan & McConaty. Ubicable en: http://www.horancares.com/obituary/Jack-D.-Gillum/Aurora-CO/1086628?s=rs.

[24] Ibíd.

[25] “The firm’s [Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates Inc.] probe of the Hyatt disaster, which killed 114 guests, pointed to changed design parameters, which overloaded walkway connectors, and poor communication.

Investigators concluded that the basic problem was a lack of proper communication between Jack D. Gillum and Associates and Havens Steel. In particular, the drawings prepared by Jack D. Gillum and Associates were only preliminary sketches but were interpreted by Havens as finalized drawings. Jack D. Gillum and Associates failed to review the initial design thoroughly, and accepted Havens’ proposed plan without performing basic calculations that would have revealed its serious intrinsic flaws — in particular, the doubling of the load on the fourth-floor beams. It was later revealed that when Havens called Jack D. Gillum and Associates to propose the new design, the engineer they spoke with simply approved the changes over the phone, without viewing any sketches or performing calculations.

The engineers employed by Jack D. Gillum and Associates who had approved the final drawings were found culpable of gross negligence, misconduct and unprofessional conduct in the practice of engineering by the Missouri Board of Architects, Professional Engineers, and Land Surveyor. All lost their respective engineering licenses in the states of Missouri, Kansas and Texas and their membership with ASCE. Although the company of Jack D. Gillum and Associates was discharged of criminal negligence, it lost its license to be an engineering firm.

At least $140 million was awarded to victims and their families in both judgments and settlements in subsequent civil lawsuits; a large amount of this money was from Crown Center Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hallmark Cards which was the owner of the hotel real estate – like many hoteliers, Hyatt operates hotels for a fee as a management company, and does not usually own the buildings. Life and health insurance companies are likely to have absorbed even larger uncompensated losses in policy payouts.

The Hyatt collapse remains a classic model for the study of engineering ethics and errors, as well as disaster management. As an engineer of record for the Hyatt project, Jack D. Gillum (1924–2012) occasionally shared his experiences at engineering conferences in the hope of preventing future mistakes”, “Saying goodbye to a true architecture, engineering & construction forensics legend” (2017). AEC forensics.com. Ubicable en: https://aecforensics.com/2017/06/08/saying-goodbye-to-a-true-architecture-engineering-construction-forensics-legend/.

[26] “Two engineers accused of misconduct for their role in a hotel skywalk collapse that killed 114 people in 1981 have been formally relieved of engineering duties at their company, officials say”: “2 Engineers Replaced For Role in Hyatt Case” (1985). The New York Times, 26 de diciembre.

 

Basado en

Viso I., Peña M.I., Vegas F., 2015 .Caracas del Valle al Mar. Guía de Arquitectura y Paisaje.

Junta de Andalucía y Ediciones FAU. España/Caracas.

 

Bibliografía adicional

Notas sobre los distritos petroleros, con Henry Vicente. Caracas 14/06/2017.

Planos originales Ingeniería Municipal de Caracas, consultados en  17/06/ 2017

American Architecture in CCS Exhibition 2017, Nov 2016. DOCOMOMOve

Lista FE revisada por DOCOMOMOve, 060217

Hernández de Lasala, S. 2004. Años de Ambigüedad. La arquitectura en Caracas. Santiago de León de Caracas 1567-2030. Exxon Mobil de Venezuela S.A.

González Casas, L. 2004.Los extraños acordes de una sinfonía metropolitana. Santiago de León de Caracas 1567-2030. Exxon Mobil de Venezuela S.A.

Niño Araque, W2004.  Ciudad definitiva. Un paisaje completamente moderno 1950-58. Santiago de León de Caracas 1567-2030. Exxon Mobil de Venezuela S.A.

Planta y Fachada, Edificio Banaven, Cubo Negro. Fuente: FE